Signed in Beijing on September 7, 1993, available on the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs (AMF) contract database in English, Chinese and Hindi. All three texts have the same validity. An English copy is also available in the UN Peacemaker database. According to a summary on the UN peacemakers` website, the agreement provides “a framework for border security between the parties until a final decision is taken on the delimitation of borders.” The parties agree to “minimize military forces in areas along effective control” and to “reduce military personnel” with friendly and quality relations between them. (Article 2) They also agree to implement confidence-building measures along the LAC`s control, including prior notifying “military exercises at certain levels close to the effective line of control authorized by this agreement.” (Article 2) In 2012, India and China agreed on the creation of a consultation and coordination working mechanism to “study opportunities and ways to conduct and strengthen exchanges and cooperation between military personnel and institutions… border areas. The 2013 Border Defence Cooperation Agreement lists several mechanisms to avoid misunderstandings and improve communication. Article VI of the agreement prohibits both parties from transferring the other party`s patrols “to areas where there is no common understanding of the effective line of control.” “The joint declaration in Moscow last week, like the Panchsheel agreement, and many other bilateral pacts aimed at bringing peace and tranquility along the LAC are all pushed by Beijing, as well as talks between the respective SRs,” said a senior security official, who declined to be named. This is really a case of India constantly taking initiatives with regard to the fixed LAC, as it was tactically consistent with keeping the border issue active for decades as a strategic lever to de-insad delhi and keep it still uncertain, he added. The Indian government says Chinese troops continue to enter the area illegally hundreds of times.  In 2013, a three-week standoff between Indian and Chinese troops 30 km southeast of Daulat Beg Oldi.